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Re: Multilingual TeX --- and a successor to TeX

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Sat, 14 Jun 1997 22:36:18 +0400

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 % Hello, here is an example of % macroses which redefine \uppercase to be multilingually-clean' ;-) \documentclass{article} \makeatletter % First, let's define macros to change language': \def\LangA{\begin@language \language0 \uccodea=b \end@language} \def\LangB{\begin@language \language1 \uccodea=c \end@language} \let\begin@language\relax \let\end@language\relax % Now we redefine the \uppercase primitive % (the case of \lowercase is analogous) ;-) \let\orig@uppercase\uppercase \let\end@uppercase\relax \def\uppercase#1{\protect\tmpe@uppercase{#1}} \def\tmpe@uppercase#1{\edef\tmpd@uppercase{#1}%   \expandafter\tmpa@uppercase\expandafter   \begin@language\expandafter\end@language   \tmpd@uppercase\begin@language\end@uppercase} \def\tmpa@uppercase\begin@language#1\end@language   #2\begin@language{#1\orig@uppercase{#2}%   \futurelet\tmpb@uppercase\tmpc@uppercase} \def\tmpc@uppercase{\ifx\tmpb@uppercase\end@uppercase   \def\next{}\else\def\next{\tmpa@uppercase\begin@language}\fi\next} \makeatother \let\MakeUppercase\uppercase \begin{document} Here is a preliminary variant of macroses that redefine \TeX's primitives \verb|\uppercase| and \verb|\lowercase| in order to correctly handle multilingual arguments. This means that, generally speaking, every language may have it's own \verb|\lccode| and \verb|\uppercode| settings (as well as \verb|\sfcode|, \verb|\mathcode| and \verb|\delcode|). And in my opinion the user should be allowed to set the values of these registers (in a language-swithing macroses, such as \verb|\selectlanguage| in \textsf{babel}). If one wants to change \verb|\uccode| and \verb|\lccode| values inside the argument of \verb|\uppercase|, the result would be negative---especially if there are several language-switching macroses. Moreover, any attempts to change the \verb|\uccode| and \verb|\lccode| values inside the argument of \verb|\uppercase| will have \textit{no effect at all} except redefining of these values after exit from \verb|\uppercase|. If one does not want to touch' \TeX's primitives \verb|\uppercase| and \verb|\lowercase|, there is a possibility to change \LaTeX's macroses \verb|\MakeUppercase| and \verb|\MakeLowercase| (namely, substitute the \verb|\uppercase| that is used inside of \textit{these} macroses to the herein proposed macros). Here is an example of using new \verb|\uppercase| macros. Consider two languages, \verb|LangA| and \verb|LangB|, that have \textit{conflicting} set of \verb|\uccode| and \verb|\lccode| values. In the following (spurious) example we only suppose that, e.~g., the uppercase variant of the letter \verb|a| in the language \verb|LangA| is \verb|b|, and the uppercase variant of the \textit{same} letter \verb|a| in the language \verb|LangB| is \verb|c|. With the new redefined \verb|uppercase|, the following text \begin{verbatim} \def\SomeText{Something that was put in a macro to save typing... } \MakeUppercase{\LangA Sample text in language A... \SomeText \LangB And now sample text in language B... \SomeText \LangA And we are again back to language A} \end{verbatim} \noindent will give us \begin{quote} \def\SomeText{Something that was put in a macro to save typing... } \MakeUppercase{\LangA Sample text in language A... \SomeText \LangB And now sample text in language B... \SomeText \LangA And we are again back to language A} \end{quote} \noindent (note, that \verb|\MakeUppercase|, which is a \LaTeX's macros, actually uses \verb|\uppercase|; so the same result would have been obtained if we have used \verb|\uppercase| instead of \verb|\MakeUppercase|). As one can see, the \textit{same} letter \verb|a| transformed to the \textit{different} letters, \verb|b| and \verb|c|, according to the current language. So, there is no need to be attached'' to the hard fixed'' values of \verb|\uccode| and \verb|\lccode| which are set in \LaTeX! Of course, to get correct results after processing a multilingual text, one needs to use only one language in one paragraph (or explicitly set hyphenation for other-language-words used in the same paragraph). But these redefined \verb|\uppercase| and \verb|\lowercase| will work correctlly even for multilingual arguments! Unfortunately, \TeX\ does not use \verb|\lowercase| when it breaks paragraphs into lines and searches for hyphenation (it does this implicitly, i.~e.\ without a call to \verb|\lowercase|), so it is impossible to meddle with this process \texttt{;-(}. As you can see, this approach works even if the argument of \verb|\uppercase| contains a hidden'' text (via macroses). But of course, it is not a universal approach. It fails when the language changing macroses are hidden'' in a group (via \verb|{...}| or \verb|\begingroup...\endgroup|). But I think that in most cases user will be able to rewrite his text so that all language switching will be done outside of groups. These macros are useful also because \LaTeX\ uses \verb|\uppercase| when it makes colontitles. So, it is possible to use multilingual colontitles. And now, how does it work. The corrected' macros changes the text like \begin{verbatim}    \uppercase{ [] []        [ ... ] } \end{verbatim} (anything in square brackets is optional) to the following \begin{verbatim}    [\uppercase{}] []       \uppercase{} [ \uppercase{} ... ], \end{verbatim} i.~e.\ it takes the language changing macroses out of the \verb|\uppercase| argument. A language changing macroses are assumed here to have the following form: \begin{verbatim}    \def{\begin@language                \end@language} \end{verbatim} This, of course, could be corrected to be used in \textsf{babel} system. \vskip3\baselineskip \hbox to\hsize{\hfill\vbox{% \hbox{With best regards, Vladimir Volovich} \hbox{e-mail: [log in to unmask] \end{document} -- With best regards,                    Vladimir.